What is DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical component of the internet that translates human-readable domain names into numerical IP addresses that computers can understand and use to communicate with each other.

Imagine that you want to visit a website, such as www.example.com. When you type this domain name into your web browser, your computer sends a request to a DNS server to look up the corresponding IP address for the website. The DNS server then responds with the IP address, which your computer uses to establish a connection to the website.

DNS servers are organized into a hierarchical structure, with root servers at the top and various levels of subdomains below them. Each level of the hierarchy corresponds to a different part of a domain name. For example, in the domain name www.example.com, the "com" is the top-level domain, "example" is the second-level domain, and "www" is the subdomain.

DNS servers are responsible for storing and updating the records for all of the domain names and IP addresses within their specific part of the hierarchy. When a domain name is registered or a website's IP address changes, the DNS server for that domain is responsible for updating the record to reflect the change.

In addition to translating domain names into IP addresses, DNS servers also play a role in securing the internet by providing authentication and encryption through the use of DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC). This helps to protect against attacks such as spoofing and man-in-the-middle attacks, which can intercept and alter communication between two parties.

Overall, DNS is a vital part of the internet that enables users to easily access websites and ensures the security and integrity of communication between computers.